17 Types Of Windows Used In Houses Ultimate Guide advantages
Types Of Windows And Their Functions With Brief Description
A Window is comprised of two parts : (i) Window frame (ii) Sashes or shutter frame. Window frames are fixed to the opening in the wall, by means of suitable holdfasts. The sashes or shutter frames are fixed to the window frame by means of suitable hinges. The window frame has a sill at the bottom, unlike doors.
Functions Of Different Types Of Windows
The functions of the various types of windows are to admit light and air to the room and to give a view of the outside. It should also provide insulation against heat loss and in some cases against sound.
The selection of size, shape, and the location of a window in a room depends upon the following factors:
- Size of the room
- The utility of the room
- Location of the room
- The direction of the wall
- The direction of the wind
- Climatic condition
- Requirements of exterior view
- Architectural requirements of the elevation
Selection Of Different Types Of Windows
Based on this above factor, the following thumb rule is used to select particular types of windows suitable for the room.
- The breadth of the window = 1/8 ( width of room + height of the room)
- The total area of the window opening should normally carry from 10 to 20 % of the floor area of the room, depending upon the climatic condition.
- The area of the window opening should be at least one square meter for every 30 to 40 cubic meters of inside content of the room.
- In public buildings, the minimum area of windows should be 20% of the floor area.
- For sufficient natural lighting, the area of the glazed panel should be 8 to 10 % of the floor area.
The Indian Standard recommendation for different types of windows that the size of the area of the window frame should be derived after allowing a margin of 5 mm around and opening for the convenience of fixing. The width and height of an opening are indicated by the number of modules, where each module is of 100 mm. A designation 6 WS 12 denotes a window-opening with a single shutter, having a width equal to 6 modules ( i.e. 6 x 100=600 mm) and height equal to 12 modules ( i.e. 12 x 100=1200 mm). The letter W denotes a window opening, and the letter S stands for a single shutter.
Similarly, the designation of 10 WT 13 of a window opening denotes the width of opening 10 modules ( 10 x 100= 1000 mm ) and a height of opening equal to 13 modules ( i.e. 13 x 100=1300 mm); the letter ‘W’ stands for Window and ‘T’ stands for double shutters.
Size of opening (mm)
|Size of the window frame (mm)||
Size of window shutter (mm)
|1||6 WS 12||600 x 1200||590 x 1190||500 x 1000|
|2||10 WT 12||1000 x 1200||990 x 1190||460 x 1100|
|3||12 WT 12||1200 x 1200||1190 x 1190||560 x 1100|
|4||6 WS 13||600 x 1300||590 x 1290||500 x 1200|
|5||10 WT 13||1000 x 1300||990 x 1290||460 x 1200|
|6||12 WT 13||1200 x 1300||1190 x 1290||560 x 1200|
Types Of Windows
Types of windows as follows, based on;
- The nature of operational movements of shutters
- Materials used for construction
- Manner of fixing
- Location of Fixing
- Fixed Window
- Pivoted Window
- Double Hung Window
- Sliding Window
- Casement Window
- Sash Window
- Louvered Window
- Metal Window
- Bay Window
- Clerestory Window
- Corner Window
- Dormer Window
- Cable Window
- Lantern Window
- Combined Window
These windows are provided for the sole purpose of admitting light or accessing outside vision from the room.
The window consists of a window frame to which shutters are fixed. No rebates are provided to the frame, the shutters are fully glazed.
In these windows, the shutters are allowed to swing over the pivot fixed to the window frame. The window frame has no rebates, the window frame of the window shutters is similar to that of an encasement window.
The shutters can be swing or rotate either horizontally or vertically.
Double Hung Window
This type of window consists of a frame and a pair of shutters, arranged one above the other, which ca slides vertically. Within the grooves provided in the window frame. By the provision of such sliding, the windows can be clean effectively and at the same time ventilation can be controlled collectively, science the windows can be opened at the top and the bottom to any desired extent.
Each such is provided with a pair of metal weights connected by cord or chain over pulleys. The chain or chord is fixed to the style. The pulleys are fixed to the frame. When the weights are pulled, the shutters open to the required level.
The upper sash moves in the downward direction, thus opening at the top, while the lower sash move in the upward direction thus, opening at the bottom. A special frame called boxed frame or cased frame is provided, consisting of two vertical members ( spaced apart to provide the groove)
A head and a sill. Small wooden pice ( parting strip) is provided in the grooved frame, to keep the weights apart. A small parting bead is provided to separate the two shutters when the opposite to each other.
These windows are similar to sliding doors. The shutters move either horizontally or vertically on small roller bearings. Suitable openings or grooves are left in the frame or walls to accommodate the shutters when they are slipped to open the window.
Such windows are also provided on buses, trains, shops, and bank counters.
These are the main or common types of windows usually provided in buildings. The shutters of the window open like a door. These windows have a frame that is rebated to receive the shutters.
The shutters consist of style, top rails, bottom rails, and intermediate rails, thus dividing it into panels. The panels may either be glazed or unglazed, or partly glazed and partly unglazed.
In the case of windows with double shutters, the outer shutters may have wire gauged panels for fly proofing.
A sash window is a type of casement window in which the panels are fully glazed. The frame of each shutter consists of two vertical styles, a top rail, and a bottom rail. The space between the top and bottom rail is divided into small panels by means of small timber members placed horizontally and vertically.
These timber members are known as sash bars are rebated to receive glass panels. Glass panes are fixed to these sash bars by means of nails. If the window opening is wide, the window frame may have a central vertical member known as a mullion. Similarly, the height of the window opening is more ( or if a ventilator is combined with the window ) The window frame may have a horizontal member called a transom.
Those are similar to louvered doors. Such windows are provided for the sole aim of ventilation, and they permit very insufficient vision outside. The shutter consists of top and bottom rails, and two styles which are grooved to receive the louvers. The louvers are generally fixed. The economical angle of the inclination of the louvers is 450. The louvers slope is downward to the outside to repel the rainwater.
Sometimes Venetian shutters are provided in such the louvered section that
can be opened and closed. The louvers are made up of slats of wood or aluminum, pivoted at both ends in the frame, and in addition, each blade of the louver is connected by a small hinge to a vertical batten. When the batten is pulled up or down, the gap between the blades is opened or closed.
Sometimes, the louvers can be raised and lowered by means of operating devices, such as in a Venetian blind. It has a mechanical tilting device and cord lock with the help of which simultaneous adjustment of slates and bottom rails can be done at any desired angle and height.
Metal windows are made of mild steel are becoming increasingly popular in privet as well as public buildings, because of their strength, durability, and cost. However, windows are made of other different metals as well such as aluminum, bronze, stainless steel, etc. These are also used for those buildings where a high degree of elegance finishing is required. Aluminum windows are rust-proof, durable, and no painting and maintenance are required, they are therefore increasingly popular for domestic buildings.
Mild steel windows are the cheapest and hence extensively used in all types of buildings. Mild steel sections are used for the fabrication of metal windows, are manufactured in a wide range of standard sizes.
The commonly used sections are Z-section, T- sections, and metal channels all of which are slightly modified in shape to meet various requirements of window functioning. steel windows can be fixed either directly to the masonry opening, or it may be fitted into a wooden frame which is already fixed in the opening.
Bay windows project outside the window wall of the room. This projection may be triangular, circular, rectangular, or polygonal in plan.
Such a window is provided to get the increased area of opening for admitting greater air and light to the room. They also provide an extra dedicated place like a verandah inside the room and improves the overall architectural beauty of the room as well as the entire building.
These window provided in a room which has greater ceiling height more than the surrounding rooms, or when a learn to roof low height is there adjacent to the room.
It is generally provided near the top of the main roof, and they open above the lean-to roof or roof slab of the adjoining room. The window shutter is made to swing on two horizontal shutters provided on side styles. It can be opened or closed by means of two cords, one attached to the top rail and another attache to the bottom rail of the shutter.
The shutters swing in such a way the upper part opens inside the room and the lower part projected outside the building to exclude the rainwater. Such a window increases the appearance of the entire building from an architectural pint of view. It is essential to provide a rain-shade or Chajja over the window.
These are special types of windows that are provided in the corner of the room as the name suggests. These windows have two faces in two perpendicular directions. Due to this, light and air are admitted from two directions. Such a window very much improves the aesthetic beauty of the room and also improves the overall elevation of the buildings.
However, special lintels have to be cast over the window opening. The jamb post of the window at the corner is made of heavy sections.
A dormer window is a vertical window provided on the sloping roof. Such a window provides ventilation and lighting to the enclosed space below the roof, and at the same time, the very much improves the appearance of the buildings.
It is a vertical window provided in the gable end of a pitched roof.
Such types of windows are provided over flat roofs, to allows more light and air to the inner apartments/rooms of a building. The windows project above the roof level.
They may be of several shapes in a plan. They admit light either through vertical faces or inclined faces. The roof slab has an appropriate opening below the window.
A skylight is provided on a sloping roof, to admit light. The window projects above the sloping surface of a pitched ceiling They run parallel to the surface of the slopping.
The common rafters are suitably trimmed and the skylight is erected on crab frame. The opening is properly treated by lead flashing to make the roof and surrounding opening waterproof.
Ventilators are small windows, fixed at a greater height than the window, generally about 30 to 50 cm below the roof level. The ventilators have a frame and a shutter, generally glazed, which is horizontally pivoted. The shutters can be opened or closed by means of two cords, one attached to the top rail and other to the bottom rail of the shutter.
The top edge of the shutter opens inside and the bottom edge opens outside so that the rainwater is expelled.
A ventilator may be provided in combination with a window, at its top. Such a ventilator is known as a fanlight ventilator. The construction of the fanlight is similar to a window sash.
Such ventilators are usually hinged at the top and can be open out. Alternatively, the ventilators’ shutter can be hinged at the bottom.
Let’s Sum Up, the list of various possible types of windows are mentioned in this article. All of the above types of windows are different architectural aspects and each and every window is chosen to be constructed to serve a different purpose.