Bricks are one of the most important constituents to construct your dream house. In this article, we are going to discuss the different types of bricks their usage, properties, and qualities.
Types Of Bricks-The Ultimate Guide
Some Facts For Fun
“Bricks are the most ancient material that is being used in construction since 7000 BC. It is discovered at an archeological site in southern turkey. Those days bricks are only made in hot climatic areas, by molding the clay into pieces and drying it into direct sunlight. And the burnt bricks are invented in about 3500 BC. From that moment usage of bricks become worldwide popular and started manufacturing in cooler climatic areas”
Considering the historical facts, nowadays bricks are available in may avatars and they are being made using different constituents not only clay but, limes, concrete, fly ash, etc.
From this table you can have a broader overview of the classification of bricks, Now before we start, let me state you some more things you must know about bricks.
Properties Of Bricks
Before we start discussing types of bricks you must aware of some important properties of bricks
- Compressive strength
- Water Absorption
Hardiness is one of the important characteristics of bricks that defines its durability as well as the durability of structures where it is being used. Hardness should be checked before using it into construction, you can take a single piece of brick and drop it from hight about 3 feet, and if its break it means it is not hard enough to use for the long run.
The compressive strength of bricks is an important characteristic to check before using but it can be only tested by using the machine. The Result of 1st class brick should be between 7-15 n/mm2
This is also an important test for bricks that can be performed at the construction site in a very easy manner. Bricks should be weighted first in dry condition then it has to dip into the water for 24 hours, now have to weight it again and for a result, weight should be increased by 15% for 1st class bricks, 20% for 2nd class bricks and 25% for 3rd class bricks.
Types Of Bricks
Types of bricks can be classified in many terms and ways, we will discuss every possible type of bricks that are available. Before I start briefing, have a look at the classifications in a tabular form to have a precise overview.
|S.No.||Classification Based On||Type Of Brick|
|1||Based On Quality|
|2||Based On Manufacturing Process|
|3||Based On Raw Material Used|
|4||Based On Usage|
|5||Based On Shape|
From the above table, you can have general overview types and classification of bricks So, now let’s discuss each type in a succinct detail
1. Classification Based On Quality
First Class Bricks
As the name suggests It is the first-class bricks in terms of quality. These bricks are manufactured under special care to achieve the perfect shape, size, and, uniform color throughout. First-class bricks are very strong durable it can last up to 100 years. Can be used to obtain high architectural purpose if they are left unplastered then also it can provide a high aesthetical look if properly pointed.
First-class bricks are perfectly sized 190 mm x 90 mm x 90 mm and they are good shaped and well burnt. They are free from cracks, chips, flaws, and nodules of lime and first-class bricks are free from efflorescence.
Second Class Bricks
Second class bricks also conform to the standard size but they are slightly irregular in shape and color. They are fully burnt and produces a ringing sound when struck together. These bricks are very much used in common household construction
Third Class Bricks
Those bricks are quite irregular in shape, size, and finish. they are not properly burnt hence the are of reddish-yellow color These bricks are low in crushing strength and very low durability. These bricks should be used in temporary construction they are highly affected by efflorescence.
2. Classification Based On Manufacturing Process
These are the most ancient process of brick manufacturing as we know from the above facts these bricks are used by accent Turkish peoples.
Bricks were shaped and in a wooden mold and dried under direct sunlight hence those bricks are also called sun burned bricks. These bricks are very low in compressive strength but, still, they are being used in villages and lower economic areas.
Burnt bricks are the process of shaping clay into a mould and burning it into desired controlled temperature.
This type of manufacturing process is adopted for all general bricks we use First Class, Second class, etc. all those bricks are burnt bricks.
Over Burnt Bricks
As we discussed burning is the prime process of conventional brick manufacturing so, during manufacturing, some bricks go out of control and they are burnt for a longer period or under higher temperature by mistake resulting in overburnt bricks.
These bricks are also called Jhama bricks and the not wasted. These bricks are used in brick soling under plan cement concrete and also used in road works as sub-grades.
This is a special type of bricks obtained by adopting different manufacturing procedures. As we know bricks are made of clay and they are moulded in the shape, in this process wet clays are put in a mould and moved through moulding chamber called Pugmille and the mix of clay is pressed in a die to obtain desired shape or size in order to get extruded bricks.
Wide variety of designed bricks can be produced using this manufacturing technology if we require curved brick mould should be pressed using a curved die, for a rectangular brick rectangular dies are used. Hollow bricks, copping bricks, curved bricks, etc. are made using this process chance those bricks can also be termed extruded bricks.
As we discussed above clay is poured into the mould of the desired shape and size Hence all bricks which are produced in mould can be termed as moulded bricks generally almost every type of bricks are moulded bricks
Dry Press bricks
In general, wet clay is used to manufacture bricks, wet clay is poured into the mold and put under high heat in a large oven to obtain its desired strength.
But In this process, dry clay is used, they are poured into the mold of required shape and size then instead of applying heat and burning the clay high compressive strength are applied using a press machine to obtain very high strength. This is the process using which dry press bricks are manufactured, in this process bricks become smooth like velvet.
2. Classification Based On Manufacturing Process
Burnt Clay Bricks
In this context burnt brick is referred to as the burnt clay brick as same as we discussed above on 2nd classification.
Fly Ash Bricks
Fly ash bricks are the bricks that are not as commonly made out of clay, rather as the name suggests it is made with fly ash ( industrial waste ash) calcium oxide and water. These bricks follow the same process of molding but they are compressed first at 25-30 Mpa then cured for 24 hours in a large steam chamber at 600– 1000 C
As these bricks are produced using CaO hence it has self-hardening properties like cement, as well as high strength and durability. Fly ash bricks are lightweight and heat resistant as compared to conventional clay bricks.
Moreover, it is a green product which means it has a very low environmental impact and economical at the same time, that is why it is becoming the prior choice of architects, engineers, and builders.
Concrete is made of cement sand, aggregates, and water hence concrete bricks are made using the same material, it can be produced at the site as per the required shape and small down stone chips are used.
Concrete bricks are strong durable but they are heavyweight and increases the load of the structures.
Sand Lime Bricks
Sand lime bricks are made with calcium silicate ( lime ) and sand these bricks are used in architectural construction for aesthetical beauties, these bricks are manufactured in factories.
Fire bricks are made with clay and grog ( fireclay), those bricks are whitish-yellow / light yellow in color it has very high compressive strength up to 48 n/mm2. Firebricks are used in special architectural elements line arches, fireboxes, fireplaces, etc.
4. Classification Based On Usage
Common bricks are all general bricks such as first-class bricks, second class bricks, jhama bricks, that we used in our regular day construction.
Engineer bricks are a special type of bricks which are made under concise supervision and control. Engineered bricks are designed to be stronger and durable to use where high strength and low level of water absorption is required, These bricks are available in many shapes and sizes.
5. Classification Based On Shape
Single Nose Brick
The single nose is the normal clay or can be engineered bricks with a single curved edge which is called the nose of that brick.
Double Nose Brick
As similar to the single nose bricks it also has a curved edge but with a double-curved edge. Single is double bricks both are engineered brick they are made to serve some special type of architectural requirements for ornamental brickwork
Curved Bricks are fully curved through its lateral section. These bricks are a special type of engineered bricks that are used in architectural construction for the construction of curved shaped masonry walls, domes, fireplaces, etc.
Cow Nose Brick
Cow nose bricks are also curved bricks with two curved edges but in different directions.
Coping bricks are curved along with the stretcher it is specifically used in top of the boundary walls which is called coping. It is used for aesthetical beauty and to hold the entire brick wall from the top.
Plinth Header and Strecther Bricks
Plinth bricks are also used in boundary walls and can also be used in foundation plinth of brick footing, these bricks are created to obtain the offset design in plinths or boundary walls. If plinth bricks are created offset along with the stretcher it is a Plinth stretcher and if the offsets are to be crate along with the header of the brick it is plinth header bricks.
Cant bricks are also special types of engineered bricks not with curved edges but it has sharp edges all these types of bricks are used to serve special design requirements.
Dog Legged Bricks
Dog legged bricks are designed to use at sharp corners of the walls. These bricks have Sharpe edges built-in, it provides better bonding between the bricks if used at the corner of the wall, can be used with the combination of normal shaped bricks.
Hollow bricks are the kind of engineered bricks which are hollow from the core of the brick, these bricks are designed to use as lightweight construction material, hollow brick has great thermal and sound resistance capability.
Perforated bricks are almost the same as the hollow bricks, with more holes or perforations at the middle, it serves the same purpose as the hollow bricks.
Paving bricks are the bricks that are used in pavements beside the road and also used in driveways. paving bricks are very strong and durable in nature.
Let’s Sum Up, so far we have discussed all the possible types of bricks in some way or the other. In the above post, I have described based on my knowledge and the resources available to me. Some types of bricks that I mentioned above are widely used some are obsoleted, In general bricks are used on many factors depending on the economy, topography, architectural preference, and material availability of the respective country.