12 Types Of Brick Bonds | Uses| With Pictures
What is Brick Bonding
Brick Bonds is the interlacement of bricks when they laid immediately one below or above another. It is the method of arranging the bricks in a successive course so that, individual units are joined together and the vertical joints of successive courses do not rest in the same vertical line. Various types of brick bonds are distinguished by their elevation or face appearance.
All type of bricks used in masonry is all of the uniform sizes. If they are not arranged properly, continuous vertical joints will result in an unbonded wall, with its continuous vertical joints has little strength and stability. Brick bonds help in distributing the concentrated load over a larger area. As bricks are small units, having uniform dimensions, the process of bonding is easily performed.
Rules for bonding for getting a good bond, the following rules should be observed:
- The bricks should be uniform in size. The length of the brick should be twice the width plus one joint so that a uniform lap is obtained. A good bond is not possible if the lap is non-uniform.
- The amount of lap should be a minimum of 1/4 brick along the length of the wall and 1/2 brick across the thickness of the wall.
- In alternate courses, the centerline of the header should coincide with the centerline of the stretcher, in the course below or above it.
- The use of brickbats should be discouraged, except in special locations.
- The vertical joints in the alternate courses should be along the same pretend.
- The stretchers should be only in the facing, they should not be used in the hearing. Hearting should be done in headers only.
- It is preferable to provide every sixth course as a header course on both the side of the wall.
Types Of Brick Bonds
Following are the types of brick bonds carried out in brickwork:
- Stretcher Bond
- English Bond
- Facing Bond
- Brock On Edge Bond
- Raking Bond
- Garden wall Bond
- Header Bond
- Flemish Bond
- English Cross Bond
- Dutch Bond
- Zigzag Bond
#1. Stretcher Bond
Stretcher bond or stretching bond is the one in which all bricks are laid as stretchers on the faces of walls. The length of bricks is thus along the direction of the wall.
This pattern is used only for those walls which have a thickness of half brick ( i.e 12.5 cm), such as those used as partition walls, sleeper walls, division walls, or chimney stacks. The bond is not possible if the thickness of the wall is more.
#2. Header Bond
This pattern is used only when the thickness of the wall is equal to one brick ( i.e 25 cm). The overlap is usually equal to half the width of brick. This is achieved by using three-quarter brickbats in each alternate course as quoins. The header bond or heading bond is the one in which all bricks are laid as headers on the faces of the walls. The width of the brick is thus along the direction of the wall.
This type of bond does not have the strength to transmit pressure in the direction of the wall. As such, it is unsuitable for load-bearing walls. However, this bond is specifically useful for curved brickwork where the stretchers, if used, would project beyond the face of the wall and would necessitate inconvenient cutting. This is also used in the construction of footings.
#3. English Bond
This is the most commonly used bond, for all wall thicknesses. This bond is considered to be the strongest. The brick bond consists of alternate courses of header and stretchers.
In this bond the vertical joints of the header course come over each other, similarly, the vertical joints of the stretcher courses also come over each other. In order to break the vertical joints in successive courses, it is essential to place the queen closer after the first header ( quoin header) in each heading course. Also, only headers are used for the hearting of thicker walls.
#4. Flemish Bond
In this type of bond, each course is comprised of alternate headers and stretchers. Every alternate course starts with a header at the corner ( i.e quoin header). Quoin closers are placed next to the header in the alternate course to develop the face lap. Every header is centrally supported over the stretcher below it.
Flemish bonds are of two types :
|1) Double Flemish Bond||2) Single Flemish Bond|
#4.1. Double Flemish Bond
In the double Flemish bond, each course presents the same appearance both in the front face as well as in the back face. Alternate headers and stretchers are laid in each course. Because of this, a double flemish bond presents a better appearance than an English bond.
#4.2. Single Flemish Bond
The single Flemish bond is comprised of double flemish bod facing and English bond backing and hearing in each course. This bond thus uses the strength of the English bond and the appearance of the Flemish bond. However, this bond can be used for those walls having a thickness of at least equal to half-brick.
Double Flemish bond facing is done with good quality expensive bricks. However, cheaper bricks can be used for backing and hearing.
#5. Facing Bond
This bond is used where bricks of different thicknesses are used to facing and backing of the wall. In this brick bond, a header course is provided after several stretcher courses. As the thickness of the bricks is different in the facing and backing, the vertical distance between the successive header course is kept equal to the least common multiple of the thickness of the backing and facing bricks.
Thus, if the nominal thickness of facing bricks is 100 mm and that of backing bricks is 90 mm, the header course is provided at a vertical interval of 900 mm. This type of on is not structurally good and not the distribution of load is not uniform.
#6. English Cross Bond
This is a modification of the English bond, used to improve the appearance of the wall. This bond combines the requirements of beauty and strength. Special features of the bond are as follows :
- An alternate course of header and stretchers are provided as an English bond.
- Queen Closers are placed next to the quoin headers.
- A header is introduced next to the quoin stretcher in every alternate stretcher course.
#7. Brick On Edge Bond
The bricks are arranged as headers and stretchers in such a manner that headers are placed on the bed and stretchers are placed on edge thus forming a continuous cavity. Due to this, the bond consumes a fewer number of bricks. This type of bond uses stretcher bricks on the edges instead of the bed. This bond is weak in strength but is economical. Hence it is used for garden walls, compound walls, etc. Bricks are kept standing vertically on end.
#8. Dutch Bond
An alternate course of headers and stretchers are provided as in English bond. This is another modified form of English bond. In this bond, the corners of the wall are strengthened. Special features of this type of bond are as follows :
- Every stretcher course starts at the quoin with a three-quarter bat.
- In every alternate stretcher course, a header is placed next to the three-quarter brickbat provided at the quoin.
#9. Raking Bond
The bricks are arranged in an inclination that should be in opposite direction in the space between the external stretchers of the wall. This bond is used in thick walls. In this type of bond, the bonding of bricks is kept at an inclination to the direction of the wall. Due to this, the longitudinal stability of the thick wall built-in English bond is very much increased. This bond is introduced at certain intervals along with the height of the wall. The following are special features of raking bond:
- The raking or inclination should be in opposite direction in the alternative course of the raking bond.
- Raking bond is not provided in successive courses. It is provided at a regular interval of four to eight courses in the height of a wall.
- The raking courses are generally provided between the two stretcher course of the wall having a thickness equal to even multiple half-bricks, to make the bond more effective.
Raking bonds are of two types:
|1) Diagonal Bond||2) Herring-bone Bond|
#9.1. Diagonal Bond
In this type of bond, bricks are arranged at 450 in such a way that extreme corners of the series remain in contact with the external line stretchers. Bricks cut to triangular shapes and of suitable sizes are packed in the small triangular spaces at the ends.
This bond is best suited for walls that are 2 to 4 brick thick. The bond is introduced at rectangular vertical intervals, generally at every fifth or seventh course. In every alternative course of the bond, the direction of the brick is reversed.
#9.2. Herring-bone Bond
This bond is more suitable for walls that are thicker than four brick thick. Bricks are arranged at 450 in two opposite directions from the center of the wall thickness. This type of brick bond is introduced in the wall at a regular vertical interval. In every alternate course, the directions of bricks are changed. The bond is also used for the ornamental finish to the face work, and also for brick flooring.
#10. Zig Zag Bond
This bond is similar to a herring-bone bond, except that the bricks are laid in a zig-zag fashion. This bond is commonly used for making ornamental panels in brick flooring.
#11. Garden Wall Bonds
As the name suggests, this type of bond is used for the construction of garden walls, boundary walls, compound walls, where the thickness of the wall is one brick thick and the height does not exceed two meters. This type of bond is not so strong as the English bond but is more attractive. Due to this reason, it is sometimes used in the construction of outer leaves of cavity walls.
Garden wall bonds are of three types:
|1) Garden Wall English Bond||2) Garden Wall Flemish Bond||3) Garden Wall Monk Bond|
#11.1. Garden Wall English Bond
In this bond, the header course is provided only after three to five stretchers course. In each header course, a queen closer is placed next to the quoin header, to provide a necessary lap. In stretcher courses, quoin headers are placed in alternate courses.
#11.2. Garden Wall Flemish Bond
In this bond, each course contains one header after three to five stretchers continuously placed, throughout the length of the course. Each alternate course of brickwork contains a three-fourth brickbat placed next to the quoin header, to develop the necessary lap, and a header laid over the middle of each central stretcher.
This bond is also termed, Scotch Bond or Sussex Bond.
#11.3. Garden Wall Monk Bond
This is a special type of garden-wall Flemish bond in which each course contains one header after two successive stretchers. Every alternate course consists of a quoin header followed by a 3/4 brickbat. Due to this header rests over the joint between two successive stretchers.