36 Ultimate List of Construction Equipment
Construction is one of the most booming industries ever. It contributes a decent interest in a nation’s development, as like any other industries it is also growing faster than ever before with the help of tools, technologies, and equipment. Smooth and timely completion of a construction project very much relies on the construction equipment used.
Do You Know?
Taj Mahal took 20 years to build, the statue of liberty took 9 years and The Hoover dam end up taking
Construction Equipment is of many types meeting the demands of the varsity of projects, here in this article we are going to list out the each and every possible range of construction heavy equipment and machinery.
So before we start, have a look at the table below to have an overview of its range.
List Of Heavy Construction Equipments
|S No. Classification||Types Of Equipment|
|2. Lifting & Material Handling|
|4.Road Construction Equipment|
|5.Pile Driving Equipment|
|6.Other Construction Equipment|
Let’s discuss each type of construction equipment in brief
Earthmoving equipment is the fundamental and very basic requirement of a construction project. Those machines are used in almost every size of the project. Earthmovers are classified based on their application, functionality, and usage, They are used in excavation, dozing, demolition, etc. So, let’s discuss each in detail.
Excavators are widely used and very common equipment in construction it is used in almost every type of construction work. Excavators are available in two types one is wheel-mounted and chain mounted tracked form.
These are operated by an expert operator seating inside the cabin, which rotates 360o. A hydraulic arm is attached with the cabin and which also rotates along with the cabin and at the end of the arm, a bucket is attached for digging the earth. The buckets are also available in different sizes.
Application: Excavators are generally used for excavations and they are also sometimes used for material handling, river dredging, tree cutting.
Backhoe is another widely used equipment in construction. It also consists of a cabin at the center and a hoe arrangement is fixed at the backside of the vehicles and at the front, a loading bucket is fixed, this is why sometimes it’s called backhoe loader. This vehicle is generally tire mounted. The arms where the hoe is fixed and the loader arrangement both are driven by a hydraulic system, but the arms of a backhoe are not as long as an excavator.
Application: Backhoe is used for a small amount of excavation works like footings, cable trenches, pipeline trenches, etc. they are not suitable for mass excavation activity as their arms and hoe bucket is not that large.
The loader at the front is also used for may purpose like backfilling, material loading, earth dozing, etc.
A loader is a kind of similar like a backhoe loader but without the hoe at the back it on it, only consists of the only loader in front. There are many types of loader available depending upon its usage and application such as Front Loader, Wheel Loader, Bucket Loader, Payloader, Skid-steer Loader, Shovel Loader, etc.
Application: The loader is used for material loading and moving. They are used in demolishing work, material feeding such as sand, stones in batching plants. Debris is loaded in a dump truck using loaders.
Skidsteer loader is the four-wheel loader used in a small amount of loading work which saves the cost of labors. Skidsteers do not follow the typical steering mechanism it moves side by side. The arms of the skid steer loader are designed using a hinge at the back of the machine to hold the arm into the air that swings over the top of the operator.
Application: A skid-steer loader can sometimes be used in place of a large excavator by digging a hole from the inside. The skid loader first digs a ramp leading to the edge of the desired excavation.
As the name suggests it is used to dig trenches, for cables and pipelines laying. While digging trenches in a straight line these are proffered over backhoe loader and excavators, trenchers can excavate trenches faster than any other machine used in excavation.
Application: Used to excavate trenches for the pipeline, electrical underground cable trenches, army trenches, etc.
Dragline excavators are categorized as heavy construction equipment which is used in large construction projects where excavation of large areas is involved. These are looks like a crawler crane where a dragline bucket is suspended from crane boom with a wire rope, the bucket is moved carefully by means of a number of ropes and chains.
Application: Used in the underground metro project, large canale construction, and widely used in surface mining.
Bulldozers are tracked mounted machines attached with a steel dozing plate in front which is used to move large hipped materials at the construction sites.
Application: Dozers are used in minings, quarries, military bases, and factories where dumped material is moved using bulldozers, they often used in demolition work.
Crawl Loaders are tracked mounted loaders used in heavy material loading in the construction sites. These are also called the tracked loader, which is construction equipment consisting of a tracked chassis with a loader for digging and loading material.
Application: As same as the other type of loader.
Motor graders are used in grading works as the name says it all. This is a construction equipment that is used in flattening the surface of the earth over which construction work will be carried out. A grading plate is attached below the vehicle to carry out the grading work.
Application: Used in grading for road construction.
Wheel Loading Shovel
This is another type of loader mounted on wheels attached with a large shoveling bucket at the front of the vehicle, These shovels are designed to perform heavy tasks and moving heavy materials within the construction site.
Application: Used at a construction site to loaded materials to the truck, construction materials such as sand, stone chips, are moved using this, sometimes concrete is also loaded in the bucket of a loader for pouring it into the required place.
In construction, a wheel tractor-scraper also known as a belly scrape is a form of heavy equipment used for earthmoving. Its rear bed has a vertically moveable hopper with a sharp horizontal front edge that cuts into the soil like a carpenter’s plane and fills the hopper. When full the hopper is raised, closed, and the scraper transports its load to the fill area for dumping.
Application: The scraper is heavy equipment that is used in mining, construction, agriculture, and various other earthmoving applications.
Lifting & Material Handling
Lifting and handling of the material is an important activity in the large construction site So, to save the time and the cost of labors some equipment is used to short the purpose of lifting and shifting of the materials used. Here I am sharing a precise list of equipment.
Telehandler is a material hoisting equipment used in construction sites where the lifting of material and men is involved. This is a tire mounded vehicle attached with a telescopic boom and at the front of the boom a platform is hinged which is used to lift the men and material, the boom can be raised, lowered, and forwarded as per requirements.
Application: It is used in not only lifting of material, but it is also used as a working platform to carry out the external construction activities such as plastering, painting. And It is also used by firefighters to evacuate the residents.
Forklifts are very common equipment but, it is not often used in construction activities but used in factories and warehouses for moving, arranging, and stacking of materials.
A steel fork is attached in the front of a wheel loaded vehicle using those forks materials are lifter and loaded to the required place.
Application: Widely used in factories and warehouses to handle the materials.
Builders hoist is a commonly used material lifting in multistoried buildings, which is used to lift essential building materials like cement, sand, bricks, etc.
A tree-like structure called ‘Derik’ is erected beside the building which is tied up by various means with the building, a hoisting bucket is suspended on a chain pulley system and attache with Derik by means of a rail bolted on a side of the Derik. The hoisting bucket is used to lift the material to the required floor.
Application: Used to lift materials to the upper floors.
You must know what is a crane and what exactly it dose. It is commonly used for material handling and lifting. There are many types of crans available, they are classified based on their application. Mobile crane, tower crane, telescopic crane, overhead crane, etc. Each type of crane has its own unique application.
Application: As we all know crans are used for material lifting and shifting.
Conveyors are used in large construction projects where large batching plans or asphalt plant operation is involved. A conveyor is a fully mechanical system using which materials are conveyed from one place to another.
A conveyor belt system consists of two or more pulleys (referred to as drums), with an endless loop of carrying pad which is called the conveyor belt, that rotates around them creating a pull effect for the goods it’s carrying. One or more of the pulleys will be powered moving the belt and the material on the belt forward and along the system.
Application: More than construction it used in large factories where heavy materials are shifted from one place to another, used in the packaging industry, automotive industry, etc.
It is a type of lift which is used in the construction of high rise building, It is preferred over builders hoists in case of skyscraper construction, It works like a common elevator but it is installed at the outside of a building on a temporary basis for lifting men and materials to the higher floors.
Application: Used in high-rise building construction.
A feller buncher is a type of harvester used in logging. It is a heavy motorized vehicle with an attachment of a blade that can rapidly gather and cut a tree.
A feller buncher performs both of these harvesting functions and consists of a heavy base with a tree-grabbing device attached with a chain-saw, circular saw, or a shear a pinching device designed to cut trees.
Application: Used to cut jungles and dressing out the land before construction.
Vehicles are the machines to transport men and materials there are many types of vehicles that are used in construction works for various purposes. I am listing below the vehicles used at the construction site.
A dump truck is a known pair with an excavator. Excavated soil is loaded on a dump truck and dumped away from the site which is a very common application of dump truck, otherwise, it is used for materials transportation like sand and stone chips.
It is a truck attached to the hydraulic dumping body which eases to dump bulk materials faster.
Application: Loading/unloading and transportation of construction materials. Used In the construction and mining sector.
Trippers are also kind of dumping vehicles, but it is smaller in size, the size of the dumping body is a bit smaller as compared to a dumping truck. It serves the same purpose as a dump Truck.
Trailer trucks are the large truck used to carry heavy construction materials like structural steel, TMT bars, etc.
It is a type of offroad car used in the construction site used to carry small materials and men. It is a 4 wheel driven car attached with large boot space (truck) at the back of the car. These cars are very tough and suitable for all-terrain.
Application: Used at the site for staff transportations.
Transit mixtures are specially designed trucks used in the construction sites to carry the ready mixed concrete.
A revolving concrete mixing drum is mounted on the truck which truck is generally used in batching plants to carry the concrete from the plant to the destined sites, the attached drum continuously revolves until it is discharged to keep the mixture homogenous throughout the transition.
Road Construction Equipment
Road rollers are the type of construction equipment that is widely popular and known by almost everyone.
A road roller is a vehicle attached with a heavy drum attached in front of it and sometimes two roller drums are attached instead of wheels. The drums used are of many types, these drums are used to compact the subsoil, gravels, and asphalt of the road.
Application: Road rollers are specifically used in road construction.
Vibro roller is a type of road roller but, the drum used in the Vibro roller is not static it vibrates the materials bellow it which gives more compaction as compared to static road rollers.
Application: Application is the same as road rollers but it is more efficient than a normal road roller.
Earthmovers are essential for a road construction project. All types of earthmoving equipment are used in a large construction project especially excavators, loaders, bulldozers, motor graders, etc.
A stone crusher is not exactly equipment it is a heavy set of equipment which is called a stone crushing plant. It is a plant unit where borders are crushed into small pieces of stones which is used in the sub-base of the road.
Application: This type of huge set up is done for long highway projects.
The paving machine is an essential construction equipment that is used especially in road construction. It is a chain mounted vehicle consists of two major components the tractor and the screed.
It is attached with, asphalt/ stone loading tractor at the back, the tractor provides the forward motion and distributes the asphalt and at the front, a screening hoe is an attache which actually helps to lay the asphalt.
Application: It is a fully automatic machine that is used to lay the hot asphalt on the base course of the road and helps to construct the final surface course of the road.
Cold Planner is an asphalt milling machine that is used to strip off the old asphalt layer from an existing road. It is generally a skid steer vehicle attached with a motorized asphalt cutter at the front which helps to strip off the asphalt.
Application: Used to remove old asphalt from the road in order to construct new pavement.
Pile Driving Equipment
Pilling is an essential construction activity where the involvement of multiple types of equipment is a necessity. Here in this section, you will get to know about construction equipment used to execute pilling work.
A Pilling winch is used in DMC pile construction. It is an electric or diesel driven engine attache with some pulley and gear arrangements which is provided to operate the hammer. The hammer is used to drive the pile into the ground.
Application: Used to operate the pilling hammer.
Pilling Rigs are available in a variety of rage, the selection of pilling rig depends upon many factors such as soil condition, cost involvement, the time required to completion, etc.
The types of some pilling rigs are DMC rig, hydraulic rig, Rotary rig, etc. A Pilling rig is a tubular section using which the empty boring is done into the ground.
Application: Used to execute empty boring in the ground.
Pilling hammers are used in Pile driving. It is a heavyweight hammer attached with a pulley and rope and operated through a pilling winch in case of DMC pile, though Pile hammers are also attached with other pile driving machines as well.
Application: Helps to drive pile by hammering.
Hanging leaders are specially designed steel Derik of variable length to hang from the jib of a crane. Pilling hammers are attached to a hanging ladder using a guide rail for the smooth dropping of hammers.
Application: Used to hold the hammers for pile driving.
Other Heavy Equipment
Concrete Batching Plants
Concrete batching plants are not a piece of equipment but it is a plant installed at large construction projects where mass concreting is needed.
It is a concrete manufacturing unit where a large amount of concrete can be produced depending upon the size of batching plants.
Application: This plant is used to produce a large amount of concrete.
Concrete Boom Pump
This is a type of concrete pump used in concreting work, It is a kind of pipe hoisted and moved by a boom attached with a pump this equipment is moved freely over the concreting area and it helps to perform concreting work in very less time and it also minimizes the manpower involvement. This machine is also called a boom placer.
Application: Used in concreting in large areas
Tunnel Boring Machine
A tunnel boring machine is a piece of heavy equipment used in underground tunnel construction. This is very high powered equipment with very complex mechanisms, designed to bore through almost every type of soil like sand, rock, and mud.
Application: TBM is used in underground tunnel construction such as highway and metro rail tunnels.
Let’s Sum it up, in this above content I have listed and categorized the construction equipment based on my best knowledge and experience. In the above list, the mentioned items are heavy equipment other than these there are many small tools and equipment are used in construction activities.