19 Types Of Cement- Complete List With Usage & Advantages
Cement concrete is a product obtained artificially by hardening of the mixture of cement, sand, gravel, and water in predetermined proportions. When these ingredients are mixed they form a plastic mass which can be poured in suitable molds, called forms, and set on standing into a solid mass. In this article, we are going to cover the different types of cement used in construction activities
Types of Cement
In this post, we are not only going to list out the different types of cement but we will categorize the cement types into five groups of cement with their subdivisions.
Five major types of cement are:
- Portland Cement
- High Alumina Cement
- Super Sulphate Cement
- Natural Cement
- Special Cement
|Sl No||Major Catagories Of Cement||Subcategories Of Cement|
High Alumina Cement
Super Sulphate Cement
Portland cement is the most widely used cement on the planet is it a common type of cement which has many types and variety of usage.
The principal raw material used in the manufacturing of cement are:
- Argillaceous or silicates of alumina in the form of clay and shales
- Calcareous or calcium carbonate, in the form of limestone, chalk, and marl which is a mixture of clay and calcium carbonate.
The ingredients are mixed in the proportion of about two parts of calcareous material to one part of argillaceous material and then crushed and ground in ball mills in a dry slate or mixed in wet slate.
The dry powder or wet slurry is then burnt in a rotary kiln at a temperature between 14000C to 15000C. The clinker obtained from the kilns is first colled and then passed onto a ball mill where gypsum is added and it is ground to the required fineness according to the class of product.
The constituent of Portland Cement are;
- Lime (CaO)
- Silica (SiO2)
- Alumina (Al2O3)
- Iron Oxide (Fe2O3)
- Magnesia (MgO)
- Sulphar Trioxide (SO3)
- Soda And Potas (Na2O+K2O)
Types of Portland Cement
There Are Nine Types Of Portland Cement, which we have already mentioned in the above table, So here we are sharing an overview of each type of portland cement.
Ordinary Portland Cement
The properties of various types of portland cement differ because of the relative proportions of the four compounds and the fineness to which the cement clinker is ground.
Advantages: The ordinary Portland cement or the setting cement is the basic portland cement and manufactured in larger quantities than all others.
Usage: It is admirably suited for the use in general concrete construction where there is no exposure to sulfates in the soil or in the found water.
Rapid Hardening Portland Cement
This cement is known as high early strength cement. It is similar to the ordinary portland cement except that it is ground finer, process more C3S, and less C2S than ordinary portland cement.
Properties: The magnitude of the increase in strength is gauged from the fact the strength developed at the age of 3 days in about the same as 7 days strength of ordinary portland cement with the same water-cement water ratio.
Advantages: The main advantage of using rapid hardening portland cement is that the shuttering or formwork can be remove from the structure much earlier, thus saving a considerable amount of time and expenses. Similarly, in the concrete production industry, molds can be released quicker.
Usage: Rapid hardening cement is also used for road works where it is imperative to open the road traffic with minimum delay.
Extra Hardening Portland Cement
Extra rapid hardening cement is obtained by inner-grinding calcium chloride with rapid hardening portland cement.
Properties & Advantages: The normal addition of CaCl2 is 2% ( of the commercial 70% CaCl2) by weight of the rapid hardening cement. The addition of CaCl2 also imparts quick setting properties. Hence this cement should be placed and fully compacted within 20 minutes of mixing.
Low Heat Portland Cement
When the concrete is poured into any structure, an increase in temperature occurs and a certain amount of heat is generated. This is due to a chemical reaction that takes place while the cement is setting and hardening. The rate at which the heat can be lost at the surface is lower than at which the heat is initially generated.
Properties: The heat generated in ordinary cement, while in low heat cement it is 50 calories per gram. It has a low percentage of C3A and relatively more C2S and less C3S than ordinary portland cement.
Advantages: Low heat is achieved by restricting the amount of calcium and increasing the silicates present in the raw materials of manufacture. Therefore it has a low rate of gaining strength, but the ultimate strength is practically the same.
Usage: Low heat portland cement is used in massive engineering construction work like abutments of the bridge, Retaining walls, Dams, wagon triples, silo foundations, etc.
Portland Blast Furnace Slag Cement
This cement is made by inter grinding Portland cement clinker and blast furnace slags, the proportion of the slag being not less than 25% or more than 65 % by weight of cement as prescribed which is produced by rapid quenching of molten slag obtained during the manufacturing of pig iron in a blast furnace. It is usual for portland cement clinker to be ground with slag, a small percentage of gypsum being added to regulate the setting time.
Properties & Advantages: The blending of portland cement clinker with the slag by no means of detracts from any desired property of cement. Indeed, it confers upon it some additional advantages. This is because granulated slag itself processes of latent hydraulic properties which are tremendously activated when the slag is crystalized and integrated with portland cement clinker. In general, blast furnace cement will be found to gain strength more slowly than ordinary portland cement.
Usage: From the point of view of the builder or structural engineer, portland blast furnace slag cement may be used for all purposes for which ordinary portland cement is used. In addition, in view of its low heat evolution, it can be used in mass concrete structures Such as silo foundation, T.G. foundations, Dams, etc.
Portland Pozzolana Cement
It is manufactured by grinding Portland cement clinker and puzzolana (usually fly ash 10-25% by mass of PPC) or by intimately and uniformly blending Portland cement and fine puzzolana. Puzzolana (burnt clay, shale, or fly ash) has no cementing value itself but has the property of combining with lime to produce a stable lime-puzzolana compound which has definite cementitious properties.
Properties: These have a lower rate of development of strength but ultimate strength is comparable with ordinary Portland cement.
72 ± 1 hr 16.0 N/mm2
168 ± 2 hrs 22.0 N/mm2
672 ± 4 hrs 33.0 N/mm2
The initial and the final setting times are 30 minutes (minimum) and 600 minutes (maximum), respectively. The drying shrinkage should not be more than 0.15% and the fineness should not be less than 300 m2/kg.
Advantages: Free lime present in the cement is thus removed. Consequently, the resistance to chemical attack increases making it suitable for marine works. The hardening of Portland puzzolana cement consists of hydration of Portland cement clinker compounds and then in the interaction of the puzzolana with calcium hydroxide released during the hardening of the clinker. At the same time, calcium hydroxide is bound into a water-soluble calcium hydro-silicate according to the reaction
Ca(OH)2 + SiO2 + (n – 1) H2O = CaO.SiO2.nH2O
with the effect that puzzolana Portland cement acquires greater water-resisting property than ordinary Portland cement
Usage: It has low heat evolution and is used in the places of mass concrete such as dams and in places of high temperature.
Sulphate Resisting Portland Cement
In sulphate resisting Portland cement, the quantity of tricalcium aluminate is strictly limited.
Properties & Advantages: They are normally ground finer than Portland cement. The action of sulphates is to form sulphoaluminates that have expansive properties and so cause disintegration of the concrete. Sulphate resisting cement should be allowed to harden in the air for as long as possible to allow resistant skin to be formed through carbonation by the action of atmospheric carbon dioxide.
Usage: Sulphate resisting cement Provides a safeguard against suphate attack to the concrete
White and Coloured Portland Cements
The greyish color of Portland cement is due to the presence of iron oxide.
Properties & Advantages: White Portland cement is manufactured in such a way that the percentage of iron oxide is limited to less than 1%; To achieve this, superior raw materials, such as chalk and limestone having a low percentage of iron, and white clay(China clay) are used. Sodium aluminum fluoride(cryolite) is added to act as a flux in the absence of iron oxide. Oil fuel is used in place of pulverized coal, in the kilning process in order to avoid contamination by coal ash.
Coloured Portland cement is usually obtained by adding strong pigments, up to 10% to the ordinary or white cement during grinding of clinker. The essential requirements of a good pigment are that it should be permanent and should be chemically inert when mixed with cement.
Usage: This cement is used in floor construction to obtain the desired color of the floor.
High Alumina Cement
High alumina cement, also known as aluminous cement found is manufactured in an entirely different way from that of Portland cement.
Properties & Advantages: The raw materials used for its manufacture are chalk and bauxite which is a special clay of extremely high alumina content; The manufacture of this type of cement is more expensive than the Portland cement, though it has many advantages over other types of cement. High alumina cement is characterized by its dark color, high early strength, the high heat of hydration, and resistance to chemical attack.
It thus produces concrete of far greater strength and in considerably less time even than Rapid-Hardening Portland cement, allowing earlier removal of the formwork. Its rapid hardening properties arise from the presence of calcium aluminate (chiefly monocalcium aluminate, A12030a0) as the predominant compound in place of calcium silicates of Portland cement and after setting and hardening there is no free hydrated lime as in the case of Portland cement.
However, great care should be taken in the use of high alumina cement, and it must not be mixed with any other type of cement, since the heat given off on setting is greater than with other cement.
Usage: High alumina cement is preferably used in refractory concretes to obtain high strength in high-temperature localities.
Super Sulphated Cement
Super sulphate cement is made of iron slag and calcium sulphate.
Properties & Advantages: Super sulphate cement is made from well-granulated blast furnace slag (80 to 85%), calcium sulphate (10 to 15%), and Portland cement (1 to 2%), and is ground finer than the Portland cement. One of its most important properties is its low total heat of hydration.
Concrete made from super sulphated cement may expand if cured in water and may shrink if the concrete is cured in air. Another big advantage of super sulphated cement is its comparatively high resistance to chemical attack.
Usage: It is very suitable for the construction of dams and mass concreting work.
Natural cement is those cement which is manufactured from naturally occurring cement rocks that have compositions similar to the artificial mix of argillaceous and calcareous materials from which the portland cement is manufactured.
Properties: The properties of such cement depend upon the composition of the natural cement rock.
Usage: However, the natural cement rocks are burned at somewhat lower temperatures than those used for the production of Portland cement clinker.
The special type of cement is further categorized into eight sub-divisions ;
For a long time, lime gauged with sand was used for mortar for laying brickwork. However, in order to increase the strength and rapidity of gaining strength, it became common to mix Portland cement with the lime.
Properties & Advantages: The usual proportions of cement:lime: sand may range from 1: 1:6 for heavy loads to 1:3:12 for light loads. Cement sand mortars are too harsh, while lime makes the mortar easier to work.
In order to avoid the necessity for mixing cement and lime, masonry cement has recently been introduced. According to Wuerpel, the most successful masonry cement is composed of Portland cement clinker, limestone, gypsum, and air-entraining agent. These constituents are ground to an even greater fineness than that of high strength Portland cement.
Usage: The plasticity and workability of masonry cement are imparted by the limestone and air-entraining agents. The ease of working masonry cement and their water retentive properties help to increase their adhesion to bricks or other building units and this is further assisted by the fact their shrinkage is fairly low, this is why it is perfectly suitable for constructions of masonry blocks and walls.
Trief cement is practically the same as blast furnace cement except that the blast furnace slag is ground wet and separately from the cement. Wet grinding results in a time product, with a specific surface of at least 3000 cm2/gm. Due to this, the slow rate of gain of strength normally associated with blast furnace cement is avoided and strength from early ages equal to those of ordinary Portland cement is obtained. This cement has smaller shrinkage and a smaller heat of evolution while setting than ordinary Portland cement.
Expansive cement expands while hardening.
Properties: Ordinarily, concrete shrinks while hardening, resulting in shrinkage cracks. This can be avoided by mixing expansive cement with the normal cement in the concrete, which will neither shrink nor expand. Another useful application of expansive cement is in repair work where the opened up joints can be filled with this cement so that after an expansion a tight joint is obtained.
Usage: Expansive cement has been used in France for underpinning and for the repair of bomb-damaged arch bridges.
Oil Well Cement
In the drilling of oil wells, cement is used to fill the space between the steel lining tube and the wall of the well, and to grout up porous strata, and to prevent water or gas from gaining access to oil-bearing strata. The cement used may be subject to very high pressure, and the temperature may rise to 400°F. Cement used must be capable of being pumped for up to about 3 hours. It must also harden quickly after setting.
These properties can be achieved by (a) adjusting the composition of the cement and (b) by adding retarders to ordinary Portland cement. In case (a), the proportion
Usage: This cement is used for bored or drilled oil well where it is subjected to high temperature and pressure.
Air Entering Cement
Vinsol resin or vegetable fats and oils and fatty acids are ground with
ordinary cement. These materials have the property to entrain air in the form of fine tiny air bubbles in concrete.
Properties: Minute voids are formed while setting of cement which increases resistance against freezing and scaling action of salts. Air entrainment improves workability and the water/cement ratio can be reduced which in turn reduces shrinkage, etc.
Usage: Air entraining cement is used for the same purposes as that of OPC.
Calcium Chloride Cement
It is also known as extra rapid hardening cement and is made by
adding 2 percent of calcium chloride. Since it is deliquescent, it is stored under dry conditions and should be consumed within a month of its dispatch from the factory.
Properties: The rate of strength development is accelerated; a higher percentage of calcium chloride causes excessive shrinkage. The strength gained after 1 day is 25 percent more and after 7 days about 20 percent more than the ordinary Portland cement.
Usage: It is very suitable for cold weather.
Water Repellent Cement
It is also called hydrophobic cement. A small amount of hydrophobic surfactants such as stearic acid, boric acid, or oleic acid is mixed with the ordinary Portland cement during grinding of clinker.
Properties & Advantages: These substances are added in amounts of 0.1 to 0.5% of the weight of cement in terms of dry admixtures. These acids form a thin (monomolecular) film around the cement particles which prevent the entry of atmospheric moisture. The film breaks down when the concrete is mixed, and the normal hydration takes place. When concrete is being prepared, hydrophobic admixtures plasticize the mix and contribute to the formation of uniformly distributed fine pores in concrete as it hardens and thus enhances its frost resistance. Hydrophobic cement also features greater water resistance and water impermeability.
The specific surface of hydrophobic cement should not be less than 350 m2/kg. The average compressive strength should not be less than
72 ± 1 hour -15.69 N/mm2
168 ± 2 hours -21.57 N/mm2
672 ± 4 hours – 30.40 N/mm2
The weak points of hydrophobic cement are its small strength gain during the initial period because of the hydrophobic films on cement grains which prevent the interaction with water, but its 28-day strength is equal to that of ordinary Portland cement.
Usage: It is most suitable for basements and for making watertight concrete.
Water Proof Cement
It is manufactured by adding stearates of Ca and Al and gypsum
treated with tannic acid, etc. at the time of grinding.
Properties: It is resistant to the penetration of water.
Usage: Used in water retaining structures like tanks, reservoirs, retaining walls, swimming pools, bridge piers, etc.
Let’s Sum Up, the elaborative list for types of cement we have covered all different types of cement along with their properties and usage in different walks of construction. But, one must remember the choice of cement which type should be used for what purpose should always be the choice of the concerned Structural Engineer or the Engineer-In-Charge.
Types of cement grades
There are generally three grades of portland cement which is 33 grade 43 grade and 53 grade. Higher the grade of cement higher the strength which means the grade is their compressive strength in 28 day in n/mm2.
What is the difference between OPC and PPC?
OPC is the most widely used cement in the construction industry and the strength of OPC is higher in the initial days but in a longer duration and for best performance PPC can beat the OPC.PPC cement is not classified in different grades but it can give the performance like OPC 43 grade cement or even better
Which type of cement is best?
Portland pozzolana cement is best in quality and strength for all types of construction as the cost is a bit higher than the OPC cement.